Pittsburgh Journal of Technology Law & Policy https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp <p><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica Neue', Arial, Helvetica, Geneva, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; line-height: 16px; text-align: left;">The Pittsburgh Journal of Technology Law &amp; Policy &nbsp;(JTLP) seeks to both celebrate and cultivate the spirit of innovation in the Pittsburgh region and beyond. We are&nbsp;a student-produced journal of contemporary legal topics involving technology of all kinds. The Journal publishes on a rolling basis, with each volume closing in the Spring. Since its first issue in Fall 2000, the journal has kept the legal community informed on emerging issues including entertainment and film, patent application, information privacy, social media networks, cyberspace law, and other intellectual property and technology queries.&nbsp;&nbsp;We welcome submissions of manuscripts from legal scholars, practicing attorneys and anyone who is interested in submitting appealing, timely, technology-related material. In addition, submissions on topics linked specifically to the Western District of Pennsylvania are of particular interest to the Journal and are very well-regarded.</span></p> <p><a href="http://www.law.pitt.edu" target="_blank" rel="noopener">University of Pittsburgh School of Law</a><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG ></o:AllowPNG> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--><!-- [if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves ></w:TrackMoves> <w:TrackFormatting ></w:TrackFormatting> <w:PunctuationKerning ></w:PunctuationKerning> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas ></w:ValidateAgainstSchemas> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF ></w:DoNotPromoteQF> <w:LidThemeOther>EN-US</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> 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/><ol><ol><li>The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.<br /><br /></li><li>Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.<br /><br /></li><li>The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons 4.0 License (Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works)</a>, or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:<ol style="list-style-type: lower-alpha;"><li>Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as 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These fully autonomous vehicles are poised to replace the traditional human driver. Hence, the whole set of laws defining liability in the event of an accident involving a vehicle have to be reformed. An autonomous vehicle being sued in lieu of a human driver, would be impractical. With the accidents involving autonomous vehicles increasing, newly minted laws like that of Michigan Harbor Lacunas are forming to address the question of liability and as a consequence of which the innocent (the manufacturer in so many cases) is held absolutely liable, despite his pleading defense. Such a harsh stance is unhealthy for the development of technology. Apart from the conundrum surrounding liability there are other dimensions which are equally unaddressed when it comes to automation. These autonomous vehicles rely on data, thereby adding to the vulnerability of protection of an individual’s privacy. These brimming chaos are likely to hamper the aggrandizement of technology and subsequent protection of commercial interests.</span></p><p><span>This Article is an attempt to comprehensively analyze the uncertainty surrounding the questions of liability and privacy protection for autonomous vehicles. It takes into account the technology friendly interpretation of law, which will balance the diametrically opposite variables. It draws the laws from the existing set of principles available. Further, it proposes a new framework eliminate obscurity and concludes on a positive note with recommendations which are likely to accentuate the effectiveness of the current laws and lay down a steppingstone for the future development of laws.</span></p> Aarushi Kapoor, Khushi Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Aarushi Kapoor, Khushi Sharma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/239 Mon, 22 Feb 2021 11:49:16 -0500 Nano-drug Clinical Trials: Informed Consent and Risk Management Through Blockchain https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/243 <p>Drug bearing nano-shells that can be utilized for targeted drug delivery have been shown to enhance the therapeutic index by increasing the dug concentration in diseased tissue and reducing the toxicity in normal tissue. The controllability of the drug bearing shell size provides predictability measure for the amount of drug payload per shell which improves the administration of the therapeutic dose. The FDA approved different formulations for clinical use in metastatic and recurrent breast cancer, among other diseases. At the moment, some of these formulations are the subject of international clinical trials. Informed consent is legally mandated in administering drug bearing nano-shells. The risks of the new formulations, as with all new technologies, are not well known and are continue to be a subject of intensive research, thus exacerbating the existing informed consent legal issues, thus exacerbating the existing informed consent legal issues. This short essay focuses on proposing a framework to mitigate liabilities administering a new formulation on nano-enabled drug carriers particularly when uncertainties of the benefits and damages are not fully known. </p> Yousef Haik, Ilias Bantekas Copyright (c) 2021 Yousef Haik, Ilias Bantekas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/243 Wed, 17 Mar 2021 16:16:07 -0400 Biometric Monitoring Devices: Modern Solutions to Protecting Athletes’ Data Privacy https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/245 <p>Smartwatches like Fitbits provide users with easy access to quantifiable health data. In the sports industry, tracking this biometric information may be particularly beneficial to athletes, whose livelihoods revolve around their health and fitness. Nonetheless, under the current regime, professional and collegiate athletes’ biometric health data are inadequately protected. Data privacy law is still in its infancy, but in the meantime, athletes must consider that motivations to sell or misuse players’ biometric information may outpace legal developments.</p><p> </p><p>This Paper will analyze the promise and risk of collecting professional and collegiate athletes’ health and biometric data, particularly through fitness wearables. It will provide a closer look at wearables in professional sports and consider the increased risk posed to college athletes. Finally, this Paper will consider possible solutions to maximize the benefits of newfound technology while simultaneously minimizing risks to players’ health information, privacy, and personal data ownership.</p> Tristan A. Dietrick Copyright (c) 2021 Tristan A. Dietrick https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/245 Thu, 22 Apr 2021 18:09:01 -0400 Big Data and "New Surveillance": Is International Regulation Feasible? https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/240 <span>The collection and analysis of individuals data by governments and organizations is an area that lacks overarching protection at the international level, there is potential for an international system monitoring the use of Big Data and providing protections against violations of the right to privacy among other human rights laws. This paper outlines the policy background, then analyzes the use of Big Data through case studies of collection of data on LBTQ+ in Russia, and Uyghur Muslims in China’s Xinjiang province. After establishing the potential for abuses and violations of human rights and the right to privacy through unfettered access to personal data, this paper then considers proposed models to assess and protect human rights in this area, and looks at the potential for the development of an international monitoring system. To take steps towards developing an international legal framework of data protection I argue that the use of international norms to create monitoring bodies, and treaty law between nation-states and also international organizations can be utilized to develop such a framework. </span> Leanne Winkels Copyright (c) 2021 Leanne Winkels https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/240 Thu, 28 Jan 2021 12:53:06 -0500 Babyproofing the House Before the Hurricane: Where We are Missing the Mark https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/241 <p>Americans have felt the impacts of data breaches annually for over a decade. In the past few years, the impact and number of those breaches have increased, compromising millions of Americans’ informational privacy. This Article examines the privacy protections available to Americans and the issues arising from the lack of regulations that specifically protect data privacy. Section I of this Article offers an overview of privacy in American legal history and case law, global regulatory models, and some notable privacy regulations. Section II explores where those regulatory models and the consumer experience are lacking. Section III takes lessons learned from existing privacy regulations and proposes a suggested mitigation for the national data privacy problem. Finally, Section IV provides concluding thoughts.</p> Anokhy Desai Copyright (c) 2021 Anokhy Desai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/241 Thu, 28 Jan 2021 13:22:58 -0500 Patent Eligibility: Exploring the Intersection Between Patent Law and Biomedical Data https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/246 <p>The world was fundamentally changed by the rampant spread of COVID-19 in 2020. This is not the first and will not be the last time the world is faced with a pandemic. Thus, it is essential to take the necessary steps now to be prepared in the future. This Note will address how patent law can protect inventions incorporating the biomedical data to prevent future pandemics. The Note compares U.S. and European Patent Regimes to determine which system is better at protecting biomedical data. Lastly, this Note proposes changes to the U.S. Patent Regime to help increase its compatibility with biomedical data.</p> Erin A. Napoleon Copyright (c) 2021 Erin A. Napoleon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/246 Wed, 12 May 2021 11:21:36 -0400 Me-FAS, You-FAS, We All Eat PFAS: What To Do About the Forever Chemical https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/247 <p>Per- and polyfluoroalkyl, more commonly known as PFAS, has been found in the blood of 95% of the population. PFAS is a family of over 3,000 human-made chemicals. One chemical in the PFAS family, PFOA, is most well-known for its use in Teflon products and has been the subject of multiple litigations. While PFOA has been phased out of production in the United States due to its known negative human health effects, other PFAS that are just as harmful are now used in place of PFOA. The molecular structure of PFAS contains strong bonds that are difficult to break down through natural processes. This characteristic makes PFAS both extremely helpful to industrial processes and harmful to human health and the environment. Because of its resiliency, PFAS remain in the environment long after initial release. Its stability and endurance have led scientists to dub PFAS as “the forever chemical.” This Note explores the history of PFAS production in the United States and concludes with potential regulatory action that can be taken to limit human exposure to PFAS.</p> Noel M. Johnson Copyright (c) 2021 Noel M. Johnson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://tlp.law.pitt.edu/ojs/tlp/article/view/247 Wed, 19 May 2021 12:45:11 -0400